Earth Sciences

Earth Sciences is the study of the Earth in terms of Geography, Geology, Geophysics, etc. It combines the use of Sciences such as Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics to understand the Earth System.

Asked in Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Seasons

What causes the seasons on Earth?

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This is a more complex answer than most might think. Climate (long term weather) and climate change are a basic factor of 3 main things Obliquity (axial tilt) Precession Rotation (elliptical eccentricity,) They are also referred to as Milankovitch cycles named for the Serbian scientist that theorized and later proved his idea of cyclical climate changes with 26k 41k and 100k events which later were mathematically shown to coincide almost exactly with earths climate history. The Earth's rotation around its axis, and revolution around the Sun, evolve over time because gravitational interactions with other bodies in the solar system. a few cycles are dominant. Earths tilt and the wobble Seasons are not caused by its proximity to the sun, rather they are caused by its tilt (obliquity) and its wobble (precession) also causes chanhes in the magnetic declination of our poles. Think of an apple stab it with a pencil and tilt it 20 or so degrees, as the earth rotates amd revolves and wobbles the poles change place in angle to the sun, move your pencil from front to back
Asked in Earth Sciences, Oceans and Seas, Pacific Ocean

What is the deepest point in the ocean and where is it located?

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The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans. It is in the western Pacific Ocean.
Asked in Science, Earth Sciences

What is the rock cycle song?

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SEDIMENTARY rock Has been formed in layers Often found near water sources With fossils from decayers Then there's IGNEOUS rock Here since Earth was born Molten Lava, cooled and hardened That's how it is formed These two types of rocks Can also be transformed With pressure, heat and chemicals METAMORPHIC they'll become (sung to the tune of row row row your boat) (=**=) (<cat lol)
Asked in Earth Sciences, Latitude and Longitude, Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn

What are the parallels halfway between the equator and the poles?

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Answer #1: I believe you mean the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, but they are not half way (ie 45 degrees north and south) they are 23° 26′ 16″ N and S respectively. ================================ Answer #2: I believe you mean the parallels halfway between the equator and the poles, since that's the way you worded the question. They are the parallels of 45° North latitude and 45° South latitude.
Asked in Earth Sciences, Erosion and Weathering

How do you stop gravity erosion?

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There are a number of different ways in which you could potentially prevent gravity-related erosion, but you could also take measures to prevent damage from the erosion too. To prevent the erosion in the first place, you could anchor the ground/boulders in place. In addition, you could totally remove particularly difficult boulders or overhangs, although this is more expensive. Prevention is always more expensive than protection. To protect property from mass movement (landslide etc.), if the property is on top of the precarious rock, you can only anchor the rock, else move the property away (again, expensive). Another measure could be to build a large support structure, to mount dirt up by it, perhaps. To protect a property, or any communications or buildings for that matter, you can take a number of measures. The first is the most popular: a simple fence or wall built into the mountainside/ rock face. This is a cheap and quick solution. Another popular option is a ditch, but this is regularly difficult because the ditch must be dug into the rock, which is hard. Other options include adding concrete structures into the rock to strengthen it, removing unconsolidated sediment (soil) from the rock face or top rock surface, and strengthening the buildings themselves. In the case of a road, you could also build a shelter as you would for an avalanche. Furthermore, it is important to monitor the earthquake activity in the area, so that one can be predicted.
Asked in Earth Sciences, Geophysics

Where does Earth's water originally come from?

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The Short Answer: Some of it was here when the earth was made (but locked into the rocks as hydrates ... much of that released as the Earth became molten.) And some came from comets and other ice particles that have bombarded the Earth since it was formed. No one knows which part was the major contributor. In more depth...: At some early point in time (after the moon) the Earth was a hot, glowing ball which would have out-gassed fairly completely. Hydrogen is light enough so that most of it would have escaped. Free Hydrogen is lost from a planet as small as Earth, it takes the outer gas giants with much stronger gravitational pulls to hold it Additionally, there was little or no oxygen (all the bound oxygen was in the rocks - which is mostly still there). One common theory of where the Earth's water comes from was the comet impact theory. The belief was that earths water came from comets that impacted on the early Earth (recall that at this time there would be no atmosphere to disintegrate the comets). Scientists have looked at samples of ice from comets and the ratios of heavy water (water with an isotope of hydrogen called deuterium) does not match the water found in the oceans. This has lead scientist to believe the oceans are not made up of mostly cometary water. Evidence of water on the early Earth comes from Zircon Crystals dating from 4.53 billion years ago, only about 200 million years after the planet formed. Zircon crystals can only be created in the presence of water. This has lead scientist to believe that a large percentage of water was already in the rocks on Earth when it was created. However examination from "fossil water" taken from Hawaiian volcanoes that originally comes from the bottom layers of the crust also shows differences from modern water. A final note: The following is a quote from the founder of Ask an Astronomer, Dave Kornreich: No, H20 cannot exist in stars, but H and O separately can. Hydrogen is the basic building material of the universe, created in the Big Bang. Oxygen is created by nuclear reactions in stars. If you put H and O together in the cold of space, you get H2O. There are enourmous amounts of water in space. In fact, nearly all of the oxygen in space is in the form of water or carbon monoxide. Similarly, most the carbon and nitrogen in space are also in their most hydorgenated forms: methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3).
Asked in Clouds, Earth Sciences, Planetary Science, Planet Mars

What is Mars made of?

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Mars is made of rock and iron oxides. It's surface is covered in mountains, volcanoes, valleys, ice caps and dried up river beds. Mars is also very dry like a desert. It is also red because of the iron oxide in the pulverized rock dust. Mars is a planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, deserts and polar ice caps of Earth.
Asked in Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Seasons

What causes the Earths seasons?

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Four Seasons, Winter. Seasons are a subdivision of a year. The Earth's rotation axis is tilted by 23.4392794383 degrees with respect to the, at different times of a variation in the 180 - 270 deg (mn), longitudes 270 - 360 deg (Winter). The Sun true longitude (Lsun) is derived from Sun mean longitude (Lmean) and Earth mean anomaly (ME). For any input through many Sun true Longitude (Lsun) for the input year 1013 : Year = 2013, Start : UT year = 2013, month = 3, day = 20, hr = 11, min = 2, sec = 9.15719,true Log deg = 360.00000013, Start Time of: UT year = 2013, month = 6, day = 21, hr = 5, min = 1, sec = 23.88007, the Sun true Log deg = 90.00000: UT year = 2013, month = 9, day = 22, hr = 20, min = 45, sec = 38.50711, the Sun true Log deg = 180.00000 Year = 2013, Start Time of Winter : UT year = 2013, month = 12, day = 21, hr = 17, min = 10, sec = 7.88032, the Sun = 270.00000 Note : All these values are computed using the Orbital Mechanics - Model & Simulation Software OM-MSS. Also all astronauts are able to read 50 shades of gay
Asked in Earth Sciences, Similarities Between

What are some similarities of apple and earth?

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The skin of the apple equates to the crust of the earth, the flesh of the apple to the mantle and the core to the core.
Asked in Earth Sciences, Organic Chemistry

What would happen if you put salt water in the sun?

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Theoretically, if you were to physically go to the Sun and pour a bucket of salt water on the Sun, the bucket of water would simply evaporate, along with you can the bucket itself. However some may say the Sun is a giant nuclear reactor. If you were to input a salt water compound large enough to withstand the heat of the Sun (which is improbably to say the least), the hydrogen and oxygen atoms would split apart from each other. Both the oxygen and hydrogen would then serve as fuel for the Sun to keep on happily burning bright. Since the water is not there anymore (it was split into hydrogen and oxygen), the salt would solidify and most likely melt and disintegrate. 2nd version I think the question just meant: "What would happen if you put salt water somewhere warm and not in the shade?"
Asked in Geology, Earth Sciences, Forests

What is the difference between mineral and forest wealth?

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mineral is found below the earth while forest is above the earth
Asked in Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Artificial Satellites

Why satellites are placed at an altitude of 36000 km is there any reason for such an long altitude pls answer thanks in advance?

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The closer to the Earth, the faster the orbit; this is basic math, as determined Johannes Kepler centuries ago. The higher the orbit, the slower the satellite goes. IN 1947, science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke wrote an article and a story based on the curious coincidence that if a satellite were placed in an equatorial orbit 23,000 miles (or 36,000 km) up, the satellite would orbit the Earth at precisely the speed that the Earth itself turns. The satellite would appear to be suspended, motionless, in the sky! Since an Earth-based antenna would not need any rotors or pointing mechanisms to track an unmoving satellite, the antenna could be made larger - MUCH larger. We now call that orbit "geo-synchronous", and that's where we park communications satellites, and TV satellites. It didn't occur to Arthur Clarke to patent his invention; and because he did not, the satellite communications revolution proceeded unimpaired by patent lawsuits.
Asked in Earth Sciences, Geography

What are the important tools of geography?

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Maps GPS/SatNav Surveys Globes Compass
Asked in Geology, Earth Sciences, Earthquakes

What is the function an earthquake?

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Release of pressure of which the plates start to move an push an slide next to each other
Asked in Earth Sciences, Beauty, Energy Conservation

How much of the Aral Sea has dried up?

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According to, about 1/3 of the volume and 1/2 of the surface area of the Aral Sea, located in Uzbekistan, has dried up because of diversion by farmers of the two sources (the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers) that feed it.
Asked in Earth Sciences, Chewing Gum

What is the best tasting gum in the whole world?

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Fruit Stripes but it doesn't last very long.
Asked in Physics, Earth Sciences, Magnetism

When does the magnetic field in rocks form?

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Magnetism is a property of certain materials, usually metals, that have an electric dipole on the molecular scale. A dipole is a significant separation between the positive and negative charges in the molecule. Since electrons and protons have spin, and moving electrical charges generate megnetic fields, the dipole generates a net magnetic field. If enough dipoles are oriented in the same direction the body has a net magnetic field. The dipoles can align when sitting in a permanent magnetic field for a long period of time, like underground in the earth's magnetic field.
Asked in Earth Sciences, Time Zones

What month does the whole world have the same time?

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No month - this is impossible unless you are stood on the North or South Pole when you are in all time zones at the same time
Asked in Earth Sciences, Rocks and Minerals

What elements compose Pyrite?

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Nothing, except Fe-Iron and S-Sulfur, Pyrite is a sulfide mineral of Iron
Asked in Science, Geology, Earth Sciences

Is sand carried as far as gravel?

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sand is carried farther than gravel because it weighs less and doesn't get stuck together.
Asked in Rain and Flooding, Earth Sciences

What is the driving force for water intake?

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thirst :) answer --> pressure differential